Wiki Display

FrontPage

In this section, a list of Terms and Definitions is proposed, see pages below for details

Please note that this is work in progress!

Do not cite.

Your feedback is welcome!

The "Terms and Definitions" Wiki is accessible with the following differences:

  1. Guest can view all the definitions;
  2. Site members (i.e. registered users) can view, vote and provide comments;
  3. Member of the "Terms and Definitions" group can, in addition, edit the definitions.

'+' after a term marks a recent addition

'*' after a term marks a term with alternative definitions which might need clarification and harmonisation

Overview pages of related terms

1. Earth Observation system words

2. Measurement and Metrology words

3. Observation properties words

4. Data Stewardship words

 

352228 Views
How about a definition of Cal/Val? emoticon

Child Pages (436)

  • 1. Earth Observation system words

    Terms relating to the Earth Observation system Analysis Ready Data Climate Data Record Climate Data Record (CDR) Earth System Data Record EO data products (L0, L1, L2, L3, L4) across agencies and...

  • 2. Measurement and Metrology words

    Terms relating to measurement and metrology Accuracy Bias Bias Correction Calibration Covariance matrix (measurement) Error Influence quantity Interoperability Interoperable Products Measurand...

  • 3. Observation properties words

    Area (volume) of representativeness (see also representativeness) Attitude Data Auxiliary Data Baseline (interferometric) CoordinateReference System Dead band (or neutral zone) Detection limit...

  • 4. Data Stewardship words

    Terms relating to data stewardship Access Access Collection Access Functinal Entity  Access Software Access Right Information Acquisition Accessibility Acquisition Acquisition Planning Ad-hoc Order...

  • Access

    Definition Services and functions which make the stored information holdings accessible to users by providing data search, discovery, retrieval, and dissemination functions. Access can refer to...

  • Access Collection

    Definition A collection of AIPs that is defined by a Collection Description but for which there is no Packaging Information for the collection in Archival Storage. Source Reference Model for an...

  • Access Functional Entity

    Definition The OAIS functional entity that contains the services and functions which make the archival information holdings and related services visible to Consumers.   Source Reference Model for...

  • Access Rights Information

    Definition The information that identifies the access restrictions pertaining to the Content Information, including the legal framework, licensing terms, and access control. It contains the access...

  • Access Software

    Definition The OAIS functional entity that contains the services and functions which make the archival information holdings and related services visible to Consumers.   Source Reference Model for...

  • Accessibility

    Definition The capability to access available data. Source Proposed working Definition Suggestion Link to FAIR data principles? The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and...

  • Accuracy

    Top Level Definition Closeness of agreement between a measured quantity value and a true quantity value of a measurand. NOTE 1 The concept ‘measurement accuracy’ is not a quantity and is not given...

  • Acquisition

    Definition Acquisition describes the complete process from optional on-board recording, downlink and reception, up to the reconstruction of instrument source packets on ground. See also acquisition...

  • Acquisition Planning

    Definition Computation of a non-conflicting timeline ofactivities for the space segments and for corresponding reception activities of the stations.The planned activities comprise recording,...

  • Ad-hoc Order

    Definition A request that is generated by a Consumer for information the OAIS has indicated is currently available.   Comments A general request for data from tape or disk cache without sub-setting...

  • Administration Functional Entity

    Definition The OAIS functional entity that contains the services and functions needed to control the operation of the other OAIS functional entities on a day to-day basis.   Comments   Source...

  • Administrative Data

    Definition Data collected and maintained by agencies are used to administer (or run) programs and provide services to the public. Source Commerce Data Governance Board Inventory Working Group;...

  • Aggregation

    Definition The presentation of many data files as one consistent block of time and space. Comments Usually implemented w/ OPENDAP clients THREDDS, ERDDAP Hyrax.  Aggregation can be achieved through...

  • Algorithm

    Definition Series of steps needed to generate a product. An algorithm is a set ofguidelines that describe how to perform a task or set of steps used, sometimes repetitively, to solvea problem.A...

  • Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document

    Definition A document that provides in detail, the theoretical basis of an algorithm. Such documents should accompany the products and be updated when changes occur in the algorithm resulting in...

  • Analysis

    Definition A verification method that utilizes analytical techniques and/or tools to show theoretical compliance with requirements. Analysis includes the detailed review/study of engineering...

  • Analysis Ready Data

    Definition An Analysis Ready Data (ARD) product is generated from raw data and processed so that it can be used without the need for further processing to be applied by users. There is, however, a...

  • Analytics

    Definition Analytics is the systematic computational analysis of data or statistics. It is the process of discovering, interpreting, and communicating significant patterns in data. . Quite simply,...

  • Analytics Optimized Data Store

    Definition Data stores offer reliable and flexible storage for processed data and make it available for queries and analysis on a large scale. Data stores do not require data schemas to be defined....

  • Ancillary Data

    Definition Data which are not obtained from the sensor itself (usually provided in the science telemetry) and have the primary purpose to serve the processing of instrument data. This can be...

  • API

    Definition A set of functions and procedures allowing the creation of applications that access the features or data of an operating system, application, or other service. Comments An application...

  • Application

    Definition A computer program designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Word processors, media...

  • Application Program Interface (API)

    Definition According to Wikipedia, "In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software and applications. An API...

  • Appraisal

    Definition Here: a procedure whereby the value and suitability of an EO space data set for long-term preservation is being assessed. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Archival Information Package (AIP)

    Definition Information package, made of the content information (instrument data) and the associated preservation description information, which is preserved within an OAIS. Comments An Information...

  • Archive

    Definition  The archive stores data products, guaranteeing their preservation for future use. This function includes all operations to identify, store and retrieve the data and ensure their...

  • Archive Holder

    Definition See ‘Data Provider’ Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Archive Operations

    Definition The functional entity that provides the services and functions required to run and monitor the archive system on a day-to-day basis. Archive operations encompasses both hardware and...

  • Archive Organization

    Definition The organizational structure of an archive based on a sufficient number of qualified staffs with clear roles and responsibilities. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data...

  • Archive Recommendation Package (ARP)

    Definition An ARP is written in collaboration with the Data Producers early on in the process, in which recommendations are assembled for what exactly should be archived. They are used for all the...

  • Archivist

    Definition Specially trained in preserving the original material and helping people obtain it. Archivists work with paper documents, photographs, maps, films, and computer records. Many begin their...

  • Area (volume) of representativeness (see also representativeness)

    Definition [community definition] the area (volume) in which the concentration does not differ from the concentration at the station by more than a specific range Source Larssen [RD12] ...

  • Artifact

    Definition A physical object that is made or modified by human culture a three-dimensional object held in an archives a library or archival resource that has value as a physical object in addition...

  • Artificial Intelligence

    Artificial Intelligence Definition The ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. Comments Software (and possibly...

  • Associated Knowledge

    Definition As a component of a data set, the associated knowledge encompasses all information and tools relevant to the instrument data. Preserving theassociated knowledge ensures that the...

  • Attitude Data

    Definition Data that represent spacecraft orientation and onboard pointing information. Attitude data includes: Attitude sensor data used to determine the pointing of the spacecraft axes,...

  • Authenticity

    Definition The degree to which a person (or system) regards an object as what it is purported to be. Authenticity is judged on the basis of evidence. Source Reference Model for an Open Archival...

  • Authoritative Copy

    Definition Recognized as the official copy of the object from the originating source that has not been altered. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship...

  • Authoritative Source

    Definition An entity that has access to, or verified copies of, accurate information from an issuing source such that a CSP can confirm the validity of the identity evidence supplied by an...

  • Authorization of Use

    Definition The official management decision given by an authorizing official to authorize the use of an information system, service, or application based on the information in an existing...

  • Auxiliary Data

    Definition Data which enhance processing and utilization of remote sensing instrument data. The auxiliary data are not captured by the same data collection process as the instrument data. Auxiliary...

  • Availability

    Definition The quality of being at hand when needed Source Proposed Working Definition Suggestions Again, we might want to use the FAIR data principles for these concepts Category 4. Data...

  • Baseline (interferometric)

    Definition The accurate determination of orbital distances (or baselines) between satellites with compatible orbits. Baseline calibration is a needed step in all applications of SAR interferometry...

  • Benefit Hypothesis

    Definition The proposed measurable benefit to the end user or business.     Comments Features of the SAFe Requirements Model. Source Scaled Agile Framework NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and...

  • Bias

    Definition measurement bias: estimate of a systematic measurement error instrument bias: average of replicate indications minus a reference quantity value estimate of a systematic forecast error ...

  • Bias correction

    Definition Reconciling differences between sensors and/or products by a simple multiplication or addition of a correction factor. (unlike harmonisation / homogenisation which involve a...

  • Big Data

    Definition Big data is a broad term for data sets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate. Challenges include analysis, capture, data curation, search,...

  • Broad Network Access

    Definition Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets,...

  • Browse

    Definition Process of viewing browse data or browse images to assess them quickly before ordering oraccessing them in their more complete form (e.g., full resolution or broader spatio-temporal...

  • Browse Data

    Definition (1)  Subsets of data set other than the directory and metadata that facilitates user selection of specific data having the required characteristics. For example, for image data, browse...

  • Browse Image

    Definition Visual representation of a product (as an image) to help and support product selection in the frameof the user service facility. Synonyms are: Browse, Quick-look, and Preview. Source...

  • Building Block

    Definition Set of functions with a well-defined external interface allowing reuse for different missions Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary, PGSI-GSEG-EOPG-LI-13-0033 (MM-PDGS Glossary...

  • Bulk Data Transfer

    Definition A software-based mechanism that is designed to move large data files. It supports compression, blocking, and buffering to optimize transfer times. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon...

  • Bulk Dissemination

    Definition Bulk Dissemination is a special service provided in case of high volumes of data to be disseminated to User (Research on-demand or Operational). Typically, this implies dissemination on...

  • Bulk Order

    Definition An order request for data from tape or disk cache which spans a month or more.  This requires incremental direct download management or copy to alternative devices for delivery to a...

  • CAL/VAL Data

    Definition See 'Calibration Data' Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Calibration

    Definition (1) the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs (2) operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation...

  • Calibration Data

    Definition The collection of data required to perform calibration of the instrument science data, instrument engineering data, and the spacecraftor platform engineering data. It includes pre-flight...

  • Catalogue

    Definition The Catalogue provides the discovery ofinformation to the user on which EO dataproducts can be obtained, i.e. a “ProductCatalogue”. Products can be organized incollections with...

  • Catalogue Service

    Definition A functionality to expose or publish a collectionor product level catalogue using specific protocols, such as the Catalog Service WEB(CSW) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium...

  • Certification Services

    Definition A NCEI director certification of archive authenticity. Comments NCEI certifies  hardcopy data products (generally PDF) that are generated both offline and online. Customers pay for...

  • Chunking

    Definition Refers to strategies for improving performance by using special knowledge of a situation to aggregate related memory-allocation requests. Source Wikipedia NESDIS Data Management Lexicon...

  • Circulation

    Definition PDGS function implementing the distribution of products between facilities in the same or different geographic locations. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary,...

  • Citizen Data Scientist

    Definition A person who creates or generates models that leverage predictive or prescriptive analytics, but whose primary job function is outside of the field of statistics and analytics. Source...

  • Climate Data Record

    Definition A time series of measurements of sufficientlength, consistency, and continuity to determineclimate variability and change. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 1. Earth Observation...

  • Climate Data Record (CDR)

    Definition [1] A time series of measurements of sufficient length, consistency and continuity to determine climate variability and change [2] An climate data record consists of a long,...

  • Climate Indices

    Definition Indices are diagnostic tools used to describe the state of a climate system. Climate indices are most often represented with a time series; each point in time corresponds to one index...

  • Climatology

    Definition Is commonly known as the study of our climate, yet the term encompasses many other important definitions. Climatology is also defined as the long-term average of a given variable, often...

  • Cloud Computing

    Definition A model for enabling on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable IT capabilities/ resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be...

  • Cloud Optimized Formats

    Definition The format of data that is ideal in a cloud infrastructure to make them tractable to support cloud-native analysis or access. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms ...

  • Collection

    Definition The ensemble of some products or auxiliary data having a common focus or theme or purpose (e.g. collection of land photos) A collection is a grouping of environmental data or products...

  • Collection Group

    Definition Set of collections sharing a specific characteristic, e. g. same terms of conditions for access authorization Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary, PGSI-GSEG-EOPG-LI-13-0033...

  • Common Data Elements (CDE)

    Definition The purpose of the CDE Project is to standardize the collection of investigational data to facilitate comparison of results across studies and more effectively aggregate information into...

  • Common Services

    Definition The supporting services such as inter-process communication, name services, temporary storage allocation, exception handling, security, and directory services necessary to support the...

  • Compliance

    Definition A state of being in accordance with established guidelines or specifications. Comments Compliance of an information system concerns the relationship between the behavior of that running...

  • Compression (Data)

    Definition A file reduced in size through the application of a compression algorithm, commonly performed to save disk space. The act of compressing a file makes it unreadable to most programs...

  • Consolidation

    Definition Consolidation is the process to provide a set of products for long-term archiving and further processing. Consolidation is one of the tasks of data preservation and leads the generation...

  • Consumer

    Definition The role played by those persons or client systems, who interact with OAIS services to find preserved information of interest and to access that information in detail. This can include...

  • Content Information

    Definition The set of information that is the primary target for preservation. It is an Information Object comprised of its Content Data Object and its Representation Information. An example of...

  • Context Information

    Definition The information that documents the relationships of the Content Information to its environment. It includes the reason for which the Content Information was created and how it relates to...

  • Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI)

    Definition Information that law, regulation, or government side policy requires to have safeguarding or disseminating controls, excluding information that is classified under Executive Order 13526,...

  • Coordinate Reference System

    Definition A coordinate-based local, regional or globalframework used to define and locategeographical entities. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data Stewardship Glossary NESDIS Data...

  • Covariance matrix (measurement)

    Definition Symmetric positive semi-definite matrix of dimension N × N associated with an estimate of a real vector quantity of dimension N × 1, containing on its diagonal the squares of the standard...

  • Curation

    Definition Value adding, organization, presentation and preservation activities, aimed at establishing and increasing the value of "EO Missions/Sensors Preserved data sets" over their life cycle,...

  • Dashboard

    Definition Information management tool that visually tracks, analyzes and displays key performance indicators, metrics, and key data points to monitor the health of a business, department or...

  • Data

    Definition Scientific or technical measurements, values calculated therefrom, observations, or facts that can be represented by numbers, tables, graphs, models, text, or symbols which are used as a...

  • Data Acquisition

    Definition Includes all stages of the process of acquiring a data product or services, beginning with the process for determining the need for the product or service and ending with the final stage...

  • Data and Mission Owners

    Definition See ‘Data Provider’ Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Data Architect

    Definition Data architects are senior visionaries who translate business requirements into technology requirements and define data standards and principles. The data architect is responsible for...

  • Data Architecture

    Definition Data architecture describes the structure of an organization's logical and physical data assets and data management resources. It is an offshoot of enterprise architecture that comprises...

  • Data Base

    Definition (1)  A collection of data sets associated with a system, project, or facility. (2)  A collection of interrelated or independent data items stored together in a structured way to serve...

  • Data Catalog

    Definition The Catalogue provides the discovery of information to the user on which EO data products can be obtained, i.e. a “Product Catalogue”. Products can be organized in collections with...

  • Data Catalog Service

    Definition A functionality to expose or publish a collection or product level catalogue using specific protocols, such as the Catalog Service WEB (CSW) defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium...

  • Data Center

    Definition A facility storing, maintaining, and making available data sets for expected use in ongoing and/or future activities. Data centers provide selection and replication of data and needed...

  • Data Colonialism

    Definition The process by which governments, non-governmental organizations and corporations claim ownership of and privatize the data that is produced by their users and citizens. Source Purdue...

  • Data Cube

    Definition In computer programming contexts, a data cube (or datacube) is a multi-dimensional ("n-D") array of values. It is used to represent data (sometimes called facts) along some measure of...

  • Data Curator

    Definition Data Curator ''performs annotation, publication and presentation of the data such that the value of the data is maintained over time, and the data remains available for reuse and...

  • Data Democracy

    Definition Describes a methodological framework of values and actions that benefit and minimize any harm to the public or the typical user. Comments A data democracy breaks down into at least six...

  • Data Dictionary

    Definition A formal repository of terms used to describe data. The repository should contain information for all data elements and allowed values of those elements used in metadata specifications....

  • Data Distributor

    Definition see Data Center; These institutions are custodians of data and ensure that data will be easily accessible to users. Acting in concert, the data centers provide reliable, robust services...

  • Data File

    Definition A computer file that contains any type of data, including a word processing document or spreadsheet. It may also refer to a database file that contains records, such as orders and...

  • Data Formats

    Definition Structured data that is machine readable and can be automatically read and processed by a computer, such as HDF, NetCDF, CSV, JSON, XML, etc. Comments The appropriate machine readable...

  • Data fusion

    Definition Data fusion is a formal framework in which are expressed the means and tools for the alliance of data originating from different sources. It aims at obtaining information of greater...

  • Data Governance

    Definition A set of processes that ensures that data assets are formally managed throughout the enterprise. A data governance model establishes authority and management and decision making...

  • Data Integration

    Definition Almost any interesting use of data will combine data from different sources. To do this it is necessary to ensure that the different datasets are compatible: they must use the same names...

  • Data Lake

    Definition A data lake is a centralized repository that allows you to store all your structured and unstructured data at any scale. Source AWS Amazon NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related...

  • Data Licensing

    Definition A legal instrument by which a copyright holder may grant rights over the protected work. Data and content is open if it is subject to an explicitly-applied licence that conforms to the...

  • Data Management

    Definition As defined for an OAIS entity that contains the services and functions for populating, maintaining, and accessing a wide variety of information. Some examples of this information are...

  • Data Management Plan

    Definition The DMP describes how the program will manage the scientific data generated and captured by the operational mission(s). The DMP also includes descriptions of how data will be generated,...

  • Data Management Services

    Definition A subset of Data Management and includes adherence to agreed-upon standards; ingesting data, developing collections, and creating products; maintaining databases; ensuring permanent,...

  • Data Manager

    Definition see Data Curator, Science Steward, Data Steward for more detailed definitions. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Data Maturity

    Definition Beta Products intended to enable users to gain familiarity with the parameters and the data formats.   Provisional Product was defined to facilitate data exploration and process studies...

  • Data Migration

    Definition Data migration describes transferring data between storage types, formats or computer systems with as little change as possible. Due to acquisitions, relocation, or outgrowing a current...

  • Data Mining

    Definition An analytical process that attempts to find correlations or patterns in large data sets for the purpose of data or knowledge discovery. Source NIST Glossary NESDIS Data Management...

  • Data Model

    Definition An Earth science metadata model, which supports the data standardization necessary for total system interoperability within a heterogeneous, open systems environment. The Data Model...

  • Data Object

    Definition An entity that, together with associated Representation Information, is the original target of preservation. Comments The Data Object, that together with associated Representation...

  • Data Operator

    Definition A person who operates a computer in a datacenter and performs such activities as commanding the operating system, mounting disks and tapes and placing paper in the printer. Operators may...

  • Data Processing

    Definition The collective set of data actions (i.e., the complete data life cycle, including, but not limited to collection, retention, logging, generation, transformation, use, disclosure,...

  • Data Producer

    Definition An entity or organization that develops noveldata products or improved algorithms. The program managers responsible for the planning, development, and operation of all data production or...

  • Data Provider

    Definition An entity that archives and distributes data. The data provider may or may not be the entity that also produced the data. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data Stewardship Glossary...

  • Data Quality

    Definition Quality Indicator: A quality indicator shall provide sufficient information to allow all users to readily evaluate the “fitness for purpose” of the data or derived product. A Quality...

  • Data Record

    Definition Data or information in a fixed form treated as a unit. A record has fixed content, structure, and context. A physical record may contain one or several logical records or a part of a...

  • Data Science

    Definition Data science is a multidisciplinary approach to extracting actionable insights from the large and ever-increasing volumes of data collected and created by today’s organizations. Data...

  • Data set

    Definition A logically meaningful grouping or collection of similar or related data. Data having all of the same characteristics (source or class of source, processing level, resolution, etc.) but...

  • Data set Series

    Definition Collection of data sets sharing the same product specification. They are synonym of EO collections. They are named data set series as they may be mapped to ‘data set series’ accordingto...

  • Data Stewards

    Definition Individuals who are responsible for establishing, maintaining, and being accountable for the quality, integrity, documentation, and preservation of environmental data. This...

  • Data Stewardship

    Definition A subset of Data Management and consists of the application of rigorous analyses and oversight to ensure that data sets meet the needs of users. This includes documenting measurement...

  • Data System

    Definition (1)  A collection of hardware and software to perform one or more specific data processing, analysis, storage, retrieval or distribution functions. (2)  An integrated system ideally...

  • Data Time series

    Definition A data sequence that is designed to be consistent over a defined time interval. Data points represent the same variable, processed in the same way, at evenly spaced points in time....

  • Data Transformation

    Definition Data transformation is the process of converting data or information from one format to another, usually from the format of a source system into the required format of a new destination...

  • Data Use Metrics

    Definition Data Use Metrics represent statistics on data access volumes, user groups, usefulness/popularity of tools and services. Comments These metrics are used by data managers to report and...

  • Data Use Monitoring/Administration

    Definition Data Use Monitoring/Administration tools inform data managers of self-service activities of the status and health of the overall archive.  This support is reflected in Cost Intelligence...

  • Data Use Policy/Agreement

    Definition Executed agreement between a data provider and a data recipient that specifies the terms under which the data can be used. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms ...

  • Data User Guide

    Definition A document, either on-line or hardcopy, containing the necessary information for the correct usage of the data. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS-WGISS Document: Auxiliary Data in the...

  • Data Warehouse

    Definition An enterprise data warehouse is a unified database that holds all the business information of an organization and makes it accessible all across the company. Although there are many...

  • Dataset Landing Page

    Definition A web page that contains descriptive information on a dataset and includes relevant documentation to support the facilitation of the data.   Comments When a dataset identifier is...

  • Dead band (or neutral zone)

    Definition maximum interval through which a value of a quantity being measured can be changed in both directions without producing a detectable change in the corresponding indication Source...

  • Derived Products

    Definition Derived products are higher level products (level 1b through 4) where calibration and geo-location transformations have been applied to generate sensor units, and/or algorithms have been...

  • Description Information

    Definition A data set description consists of a set of information identifying an archived data set from a long term preservation perspective. It includes a description of the spatial mission and...

  • Designated Community

    Definition The designated community in this context is the scientific or other user group - usually working in the same or related disciplines - which will benefit from the long-term availability...

  • Detection limit

    Definition measured quantity value, obtained by a given measurement procedure, for which the probability of falsely claiming the absence of a component is β, given a probability α of falsely...

  • Digital Object Identifiers

    Definition Persistent identifiers that are globally unique character strings that reference physical, digital, or abstract objects. They provide actionable, interoperable, persistent links to...

  • Directory

    Definition “Discovery” service for what services are available in the PDGS, i.e. intending by default a “Service Directory”. Typical usage is the directory of different “Product Catalogue” services...

  • Directory Service

    Definition Descriptions of metadata or data set catalogues accessed as a component of the Catalogue Service containing high level information suitable for making an initial determination of the...

  • Discipline

    Definition A field of study such as oceanography, meteorology, geology, or marine biology Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Discovery

    Definition Any service that helps the user to identify and locate EO resource starting from his needs. See also search and discovery. Comments Finding Aid: a type of Access Aid that allows a user...

  • Dissemination

    Definition The dissemination function delivers the final product to the user, by means of physical media, electronic distribution (e.g. ftp-push) or electronic server access (e.g. ftp-pull)....

  • Dissemination Information Package (DIP)

    Definition [OAIS]Information Package - derived from one or more AIPs (Archival Information Package) -supplied to the Consumer in response to a request to the OAIS. Comments Dissemination...

  • Dissemination Request

    Definition A dissemination request is a request for dissemination of certain products. It usually is related to an bulk dissemination request that shall be fulfilled. Dissemination requests are...

  • Documentation

    Definition The information component of a data set's associated knowledge may include mission, instrument, calibration, and other information in the form of text documents. Source...

  • Domain Expert

    Definition Subject-matter expert (SME) or domain expert is a person who is an authority in a particular area or topic. The term domain expert is frequently used in expert systems software...

  • Downlink

    Definition Data stream from the satellite to a receiving station during visibility of the satellite from the station. The data stream transmits the payload data and optionally telemetry and...

  • Earth System Data Record

    Definition A unified and coherent set of observations of a given parameter of the Earth system, which is optimized to meet specific requirements in addressing science questions. Source...

  • Engineering Data

    Definition Data which describe the physical condition and operation of the platform and instruments on the platform. Parameters might include temperatures at specific points, filter(s) in use,...

  • Environmental Data Record

    Definition Recorded and derived observations and measurements of the physical, chemical, biological, geological, and geophysical properties and conditions of the oceans, atmosphere, space...

  • EO data products (L0, L1, L2, L3, L4) across agencies and companies

    Definition L0: Reconstructed unprocessed data at full space-time resolution with all available supplemental information to be used in subsequent processing (e.g. ephemeris, health and safety)...

  • EO Space Data

    Definition Earth Observations Data generated by space bornemissions or instruments owned by public orprivate organizations. Comments Content Data Object: the Digital Data Object that together with...

  • EO Space Data Holders and Archive Owners

    Definition This category is intended to include all entities dealing with the archiving of EO space data and responsible for their preservation in the long term. It includes data providers, data...

  • EO Space Data Producers

    Definition Producers of Earth Observation data derived products. This category includes private and public institutes which are responsible for space missions and the companies/institutes...

  • EO Space Data Users

    Definition User communities interested in various application areas heavily benefiting from the availability of Earth Observation space data and products. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4....

  • Error

    Definition (1) measurement error: measured quantity value minus a reference quantity value NOTE 1 The concept of ‘measurement error’ can be used both a) when there is a single reference quantity...

  • Essential climate variable (ECV)

    Definition An ECV is a physical, chemical, or biological variable or a group of linked variables that critically contributes to the characterization of Earth’s climate. ECV data sets provide the...

  • Essential Climate Variables

    Definition An ECV is a physical, chemical, or biologicalvariable or a group of linked variables that critically contributes to the characterization of Earth’s climate. ECV data sets provide the...

  • Establish

    Definition define, document and implement Source CDRH [RD1] Suggestions Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Event-based Order

    Definition An event is any environmental observation of significance.   Comments There are two use cases for event based orders. 1) Observations from a particular event (time, space, variable) 2)...

  • Exploitation

    Definition Data Exploitation covers all services, application and platforms for using space mission data. Satellites collect a vast amount of data from space. Often collected in raw status, the...

  • Exploitation Platform

    Definition Collaborative Big Data hosted processing environment allowing a community which shares interest in a certain topic (mission or application theme) to collaborate and share their resources...

  • Export

    Definition To save a copy of the current open document, database, image or video into a file format required by a different application. Applications may export to a variety of popular formats. The...

  • F.A.I.R. principle

    Definition In 2016, the ‘FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship’ were published in Scientific Data. The authors intended to provide guidelines to improve the...

  • Facility

    Definition Grouping of functional ities that is supposed to be operated together. Can refer to the relevant functional block or to its instantiation (i.e. also including the hardware) in an...

  • FCDR (Fundamental Climate Data Record)

    Definition An FCDR consists of a long, stabilised record of uncertainty-quantified sensor observations that are calibrated to physical units and located in time and space, together with all...

  • Federated Archives

    Definition A group of Archives that has agreed to provide access to their holdings via one or more common finding aids.   Source Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS),...

  • Fiducial

    Definition used as a fixed standard of reference for comparison or measurement (fiducial point) Source WordNet [RD20] Suggestions Category 3. Observation properties words

  • Fiducial mark

    Definition index mark on a test system that allows automatic geometric identification and orientation detection of an object using imaging systems Source ISO:19262 [RD11] Suggestions Category 3....

  • Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM)

    Definitions FRM are required to determine the on-orbit uncertainty characteristics of satellite measurements via independent validation activities. The validation measurements shall be traceable to...

  • Field-of-regard

    Definition an area of the object space scanned by the field-of-view of a scanning sensor Source NIST [RD15] RD15:Prokhorov, A. V., R. U. Datla, V. P. Zakharenkov, V. Privalsky, T. W. Humpherys, and...

  • Field-of-view

    Definition the solid angle from which the detector receives radiation Source NIST [RD15] RD15: Prokhorov, A. V., R. U. Datla, V. P. Zakharenkov, V. Privalsky, T. W. Humpherys, and V. I. Sapritsky,...

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

    Definition A protocol used to transfer files over an IP network. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Fixity Information

    Definition The information which documents the mechanisms that ensure that the Content Information object has not been altered in an undocumented manner. An example is a Cyclical Redundancy Check...

  • Flight Operations Segment

    Definition The personnel and elements performing all the activities related to planning, execution and evaluation of control of the space segment or subsets thereof when in orbit Source...

  • Footprint

    Definition the area of a target encircled by the field-of-view of a detector of radiation, or irradiated by an active system Source NIST [RD15] RD15: Prokhorov, A. V., R. U. Datla, V. P....

  • Frame

    Definition Fixed size (in time extension) product generated from a longer data segment. Typically, the length was defined such that the product covers a square area, but with the evolution to...

  • Function

    Definition In programming, a self-contained software routine that performs a task. Functions can do a large amount of processing or as little as adding two numbers and deriving a result. Values are...

  • Fused Product

    Definition A Fused Product is a derived data product produced by merging two or more fully interoperable products. The derived data product contains values created from the merged data into a new...

  • Geodesy

    Definition The branch of applied mathematics that deals with the measurement of the shape and area of large tracts of country, the exact position of geographical points, and the curvature, shape,...

  • Geometrical Resolution

    Definition ability of a sensor system to record signals separately from neighboring object structures Source DIN 18716-3 [RD3] RD3: DIN 18716-3: 1997-07, Photogrammetry and remote sensing - Part 3:...

  • Global Attribute

    Definition Global attributes are used to provide information about the data set as an entity. Together with variables and variable attributes, the global attributes make the data correctly and...

  • Granule

    Definition The smallest aggregation of data which is independently managed (i. e. described, inventoried, retrievable). Granules may be managed as logical granules and/or physical granules. See...

  • Granule Metadata

    Definition These are metadata elements that describe a single granule of a data product. Values of granule metadata apply to all of the data in that one granule. Typical metadata in this category...

  • Ground Sampling Distance (GSD)

    Definition linear distance between pixel centres on the ground Source CEOS/ISO:19159 [RD10] Suggestions Category 3. Observation properties words

  • Ground Truth

    Definition Geophysical parameter data, measured or collected by other means than by the instrument itself, used as correlative or calibration/validation data for that instrument data. It includes...

  • Guide

    Definition The guide function is part of the user information function to provide information about satellites, sensors, product types and services. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary,...

  • Guide Service

    Definition Part of a Catalogue Service that provides detailed information concerning specific data sets which enable the user to make a detailed analysis of whether a data set or a specific granule...

  • Heterogeneous Data

    Definition Heterogeneous data are any data with high variability of data types and formats. They are possibly ambiguous and low quality due to missing values, high data redundancy, and...

  • Homogeneous Data

    Definition It is often important to determine if a set of data is homogeneous before any statistical technique is applied to it. Homogeneous data are drawn from a single population. In other words,...

  • Homogenisation (cf harmonisation)

    Definition Unlike harmonisation, homogenisation is where all satellites are forced to look the same such that when looking at the same location at the same time they would (in theory) give the same...

  • Housekeeping Telemetry

    Definition Housekeeping telemetry (HKTM) is all the telemetry necessary to monitor the health and status of the satellite and transmitted through the telemetry link. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS...

  • import

    Definition The import and of data is the automated or semi-automated input of data sets between different software applications. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4....

  • In Situ Measurement

    Definition (1) a direct measurement of the measurand in its original place (2) any sub-orbital measurement of the measurand Source (1) CEOS/ISO:19159 [RD10] (2) GEOSS Suggestions Category 1....

  • Indication

    Definition Quantity value provided by a measuring instrument or a measuring system Source VIM/ISO:99 [RD18] Suggestions Category 3. Observation properties words

  • Influence quantity

    Definition Quantity that, in a direct measurement, does not affect the quantity that is actually measured, but affects the relation between the indication and the measurement result Source...

  • Information

    Definition Any type of knowledge that can be exchanged. In an exchange, it is represented by data. An example is a string of bits (the data) accompanied by a description of how to interpret a...

  • Information Object

    Definition A Data Object together with its Representation Information.; Any type of knowledge that can be exchanged. In an exchange, it is represented by data. An  example is a string of bits (the...

  • Information Package

    Definition A logical container composed of optional Content Information and optional associated Preservation Description Information. Associated with this Information Package is Packaging...

  • Information Product

    Definition Information Products are prepared by selecting, acquiring, evaluating, analyzing, synthesizing, assessing, restructuring, aggregating, translating, packaging and repackaging data and...

  • Information System

    Definition Any system composed of hardware, software, and operational procedures components required to process, store, and/or transmit data. An integrated combination of software, hardware, and...

  • ingest

    Definition The ingestion function accepts data from different sources: ground segment reception, processing or data migration elements. The received data is quality checked and metadata including...

  • Ingestion

    Definition The ingestion function accepts data from different sources: ground segment reception, processing or data migration elements. The received data is quality checked and metadata including...

  • Instance

    Definition One operational incarnation of an element with its configuration. Note: Generic software may be instantiated several times optionally with different configurations. Other examples are...

  • Instantaneous Field of View

    Definition A measure of the spatial resolution of a remotesensing imaging system. Defined as the anglesubtended by a single detector element on theaxis of the optical system. Source...

  • Instantaneous Field Of View (IFOV)

    Definition Opening angle corresponding to one detector element Source ISO:19130 [RD9] RD9: ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(en), Geographic information - Imagery sensor models for geopositioning - Part 2: SAR,...

  • Instrument

    Definition (1)  A hardware system that collects scientific or operational data. (2)  Hardware-integrated collection of one or more sensors contributing data of one type to an investigation. See...

  • Instrument Calibration

    Definition The instrument calibration function is the determination of parameters describing instrument characteristics. They are to be used by the instruments and ground processing to generate...

  • Instrument Data

    Definition (1)  Data specifically associated with the instrument, either because it was generated by the instrument or included in data packets identified with that instrument. These data consist...

  • Instrument Source Packet

    Definition An individual packet of data formatted by the instrument and reconstituted from within the descrambled VCDUs. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Instrumental drift

    Definition Continuous or incremental change over time in indication, due to changes in metrological properties of a measuring instrument. Note that instrumental drift is related neither to a change...

  • Intelligent Filtering

    Definition Software components within the management system that perform this preprocessing task. They can be used to directly support the human operator as well as to sep- arate tasks within a...

  • Inter-Project Agreement (IPAs)

    Definition IPAs are agreements between ESDIS and projects not managed by ESDIS. Generally, the projects involved agree on an exchange of support services and data. From the interface control...

  • Interface Control Document

    Definition Interface Control Documents (ICDs) are the formal means of establishing, defining, and controlling interfaces and for documenting detailed interface design information between...

  • Interface Control Document (ICDs)

    Definition ICDs are used to record design agreements for the interfaces between participating organizations. ICDs provide a means to evaluate and control all mutually interdependent and/or...

  • Interoperability

    Definition The ability of different information technology systems and software applications to communicate, exchange data, and use the information that has been exchanged. In Earth observation it...

  • Interoperable Products

    Definition Interoperable Products refers to a set of two or more ARD products which are sufficiently documented to enable processing across a continuum of geometric and/or radiometric standards to...

  • Inventory

    Definition The inventory function provides organization capabilities for archiving management. Data products can be grouped, searched and identified for retrieval, statistics and reorganization....

  • Inventory Service

    Definition Part of a Catalogue Service that contains information needed to identify and retrieve the individual granule(s) of the data set, given the specification of the independent...

  • Inventory System

    Definition A specific implementation of an inventory service. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS-WGISS Document: Auxiliary Data in the CEOS Community: Reference Guidelines Document Part 1: Current...

  • Knowledge Information Package (KIP)

    Definition An information package containing the (consolidated) data records for a specific product type (collection) of an EO mission instrument plus the associated knowledge. The KIP can...

  • Knowledge Transfer File

    Definition Comments Knowledge Information Package (KIP) - An information package containing the (consolidated) data records for a specific product type (collection) of an EO mission instrument plus...

  • Latency

    Definition Time delay introduced by automated data processing or network transmission between the occurrence of an event and the use of the processed data. Typically – for meteorological purposes –...

  • Lifecycle

    Definition Evolution of a system, product, service, project, or other human-made entity from conception through retirement.  Source NIST NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category...

  • Lineage

    Definition The history of processing of a data element, which may include point-to-point data flows and the data actions performed upon the data element. Source NIST NESDIS Data Management Lexicon...

  • Logical Granule

    Definition See granule Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS-WGISS Document: Auxiliary Data in the CEOS Community: Reference Guidelines Document Part 1: Current Usage (1996) accessible at...

  • Logical Record

    Definition A record independent of its physical environment, that exists from the standpoint of its content, function, and use rather than its physical attributes. It is defined in terms of the...

  • Logical Volume

    Definition That portion of a volume which is viewed by acomputer operating system as a volume. For instance, with today's WORM optical disk drives, each side of a two-sided disk is a physical...

  • Long Term Archive

    Definition A collection of data moved to a repository for long-term retention, to be kept separate for compliance reasons or for moving off primary storage media. It can include a simple list of...

  • Long Term Preservation

    Dfinition The act of maintaining information in a correct and independently understandable form over the long term, i.e. a period of time long enough to be concerned with the impact which changing...

  • Machine Learning

    Definition The use and development of computer systems that are able to learn and adapt without following explicit instructions, by using algorithms and statistical models to analyze and draw...

  • Maintenance

    Definition Those activities undertaken to allow equipment and software to continue operations in its current configuration Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary, PGSI-GSEG-EOPG-LI-13-0033...

  • Master Data Record

    Definition In the context of EO data stewardship – the consolidated and quality checked data record, which represents the result of applying the consolidation procedure. It is this master data...

  • Maturity Matrix/Model

    Definition Maturity Matrix/Model is a measurement of the ability of an organization for continuous improvement in a particular discipline. It defines of all activities needed to preserve and...

  • Measurand

    Definition Quantity intended to be measured Source VIM/ISO:99 [RD18] Suggestions Category 2. Measurement and Metrology words

  • Measured Service

    Definition Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability [1] at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage,...

  • Metadata

    Definition Data about the data; parameters that describe, characterise, and/or index the data Data about data, which provides an understanding of the content and utility of the data set. Metadata...

  • Methodology

    Definition A generalised description of an approach or set of approaches to carry out a particular task. This provides an overview of concept but not the detail as in a protocol or procedure. ...

  • Metrics

    Definition Tools designed to facilitate decision making and improve performance and accountability through collection, analysis, and reporting of relevant performance-related data. Source NIST...

  • Migration

    Definition In the context of data stewardship - the transfer of digital information to a new hardware (e.g. media) or software environment with the intent to preserve it. Migration is a means to...

  • Mission Phase

    Definition Mission Specific period characterized by a set of parameters (e.g. Repeat Cycle, instrument configuration, etc...) Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary,...

  • Mission Planning

    Definition Computation of a non-conflicting timeline of activities for the space segment payload and for corresponding reception activities of the stations.The planned activities comprise sensing,...

  • Monitoring

    Definition (1) systematic evaluation over time of some quantity (2) by extension, evaluation over time of the performance of a system, of the occurrence of an event etc. Source (1) NIST [RD15]...

  • Monitoring and Control

    Definition The monitoring & control function ensures verification that all resources (hardware, software, and network) of the ground segment are operating nominally. The monitoring & control...

  • Multiple Selection / Multiple Download

    Definition Represents the act of downloading a set of products through a specific selection. To be used for a limited number of items this can be “selected” by an end-user, possibly as a result of...

  • Near Real Time

    Definition NRT Data are those that are available for use with a specified (small and application dependent) latency, which is typically 3 hours for meteorological applications. Source CEOS EO Data...

  • Near Real Time Data

    Definition NRT Data are those that are available for use with a specified (small and application dependent) latency, which is typically 3 hours for meteorological applications. Source...

  • Notification

    Definition The notification function informs about events in the payload data ground segment that has been registered for. The recipient may either be elements of the ground segment (internal...

  • On-demand data set

    Definition Collection of products that are generated in response to a user’s request. Such products could either be pre-defined or not. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data Stewardship...

  • On-demand Self-Service

    Definition A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s...

  • On-the-fly Processing

    Definition Fully automated generation of the product requested for download by the user (via the online access function) in very short time such that the user perceives the elapsed waiting time as...

  • Online Access

    Definition The online access function makes available products online for download by users. This function provides direct access to the data. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data Stewardship...

  • Open Access

    Definition The principle that access to the published papers and other results of research, especially publicly-funded research, should be freely available to all. This contrasts with the...

  • Open Archival Information System (OAIS)

    Definition An Archive, consisting of an organization, which may be part of a larger organization, of people and systems, that has accepted the responsibility to preserve information and make it...

  • Open Data

    Definition Data is open if it can be freely accessed, used, modified and shared by anyone for any purpose - subject only, at most, to requirements to provide attribution and/or share-alike....

  • Open Science

    Definition The practice of science in accordance with open principles, including open access publishing, publication of and collaboration around research data as open data together with associated...

  • Open Source

    Definition Software for which the source code is available under an open licence. Not only can the software be used for free, but users with the necessary technical skills can inspect the source...

  • Operational Data Store

    Definition A database designed for queries on transactional data. An ODS is often an interim or staging area for a data warehouse, but differs in that its contents are updated in the course of...

  • Operational Product

    Definition It is recognized as an important data source for the data repository and operational reporting. It is used for processing and integrating data from multiple sources for operational...

  • Operational Scenario

    Definition Pre-defined end-to-end flow of operation characterized with respect to the implemented  overall data flow and interaction between the external entities and the PDGS system components....

  • Operations

    Definition Those activities di-rectly related to the acquisition, archiving, distribution, and processing of mission-related information. Comments Relating to the NESDIS user requirements for...

  • Operations Center

    Definition Physical location where “Facilities” are operated and/or coordinated, comprising infrastructure, human resources, operational procedures, etc. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4....

  • Operator

    Definition Part of the PDGS being in charge of the management of the PDGS systems and operational procedures in order to provide the PDGS services to the users. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA...

  • Orbit

    Definition The path in space described by a satellite revolving around the Earth where the motion of the orbiting satellite is dominated by their mutual gravitational attraction. Orbits can be...

  • Orbit Prediction and Determination

    Definition The orbit prediction and determination function is the generation of attitude and state vectors that describe the projection of the spacecraft for certain time intervals. They are...

  • Order Agreement

    Definition An agreement between the Archive and the Consumer in which the physical details of the delivery, such as media type and format of Data, are specified.   Source Reference Model for an...

  • Order Fulfillment Access Model

    Definition Order Fulfillment Access Model - a group of data access services which a user can employ to obtain data of interest where data delivery will be delayed because the data are not...

  • Order Monitoring/Administration

    Definition End to end workflow monitoring and management of an end user request for data. Comments Order management is the process of order capturing, tracking, and fulfilling customer orders. The...

  • Outreach

    Definition The act of inviting users (or stakeholders more broadly) to engage in a mutually beneficial exchange. Source NESDIS User Engagement Lexicon NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related...

  • Packaging Information

    Definition A description of the package, which allows the user to understand the structure of the information package. In the data set it is part of the documentation. Comments Packaging...

  • Parameter

    Definition A measurable or derived variable occurring in the physical or digital world. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS-WGISS Document: Auxiliary Data in the CEOS Community: Reference Guidelines...

  • Payload Data

    Definition All the data transmitted via the payload telemetry link. After decryption and extraction of the packets from the frames the payload data is presented as: • instrument data, • Platform...

  • Payload Data Ground Segment

    Definition The personnel and elements performing mission operations related to payload data. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary, PGSI-GSEG-EOPG-LI-13-0033 (MM-PDGS Glossary Issue...

  • Phenomenom+

    A phenomenon is a fact or event that has properties. Source: modified after Wikipedia and The Columbia Encyclopedia 2008

  • Physical Medium

    Definition Any physical material capable of holding data(e.g., pages, film, magnetic tape, optical disk, wire, silicon). Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS-WGISS Document: Auxiliary Data in the CEOS...

  • Platform

    Definition Support which carries the instrument(s)/sensor(s). A platform can be a spacecraft, an aircraft, or a ground based support. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data Stewardship Glossary...

  • Point-to-area (point-to-volume) representativeness

    Definition The probability that a point measurement lies within a specific range of area-average (volume-average) concentration value Source Nappo [RD14] RD14: Nappo, C.J., Caneill J.Y., Furman...

  • Positional Accuracy

    Definition Closeness of coordinate value to the true or accepted value in a specified reference system Source ISO:19116 [RD8] RD8:ISO 19116:2004(en), Geographic information - Positioning services...

  • Precise Orbit

    Definition Precise orbit products result from a computation using all available satellite tracking data and its correction with dynamical models. They achieve the most accurate model of...

  • Precision

    Definition (1) measure of the repeatability of a set of measurements. Note that precision is usually expressed as a statistical value based upon a set of repeated measurements such as the standard...

  • Predicted Orbit

    Definition These state vectors are calculated (e.g. at ESOC) using S-band tracking and relevant payloads received from previous orbits (e.g. altimeter, DORIS, GPS). Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS...

  • Preliminary Orbit

    Definition Preliminary orbits are based on the fast delivery tracking data. They provide an improvement of the initial knowledge of the orbit but not the optimal fit. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS...

  • Preservation

    Definition Preservation covers all processes and operationson individual or multi-mission data sets for ensuring the technical and intellectual survival of Space Data set and their metadata through...

  • Preservation Description Information

    Definition Reference, context, provenance, and fixity information, which is required for adequate preservation of the content information. Access rights information may be included. Preservation...

  • Preservation Workflow

    Definition A set of actions recommended for the preservation of an “EO Missions/Sensors data set” (i.e. EO space data records and associated information) with the goal to ensure and optimize its...

  • Preserved data set

    Definition See data set. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Preserved data set Content (PDSC)

    Definition The individual items making up a complete Earth Observation data set to be preserved, including data records, and the associated knowledge, i.e. information, and tools. Preserving the...

  • Primary Data

    Definition A set of results from a scientific observation, i.e. the instrument data, delivered in the form of electromagnetic signals, photographic film, magnetic tape, or any other means. Source...

  • Procedure

    Definition Specified way to carry out an activity or a process Source ISO:9000 [RD7] RD7:ISO 9000:2015(en), Quality management systems - Fundamentals and vocabulary Suggestions Category 2....

  • Procedure (of measurement)

    Definition detailed description of a measurement according to one or more measurement principles and to a given measurement method, based on a measurement model and including any calculation to...

  • Process

    Definition Set of interrelated or interacting activities that use inputs to deliver an intended result Source ISO:9000 [RD7] RD7:ISO 9000:2015(en), Quality management systems - Fundamentals and...

  • Process Validation

    Definition Establishing documented evidence of a high degree of assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its pre-determined specifications and quality...

  • Processing

    Definition The processing function generates higher-level products from lower level products and auxiliary products. The processing is performed by core algorithms supplemented by administrative...

  • Processing Baseline

    Definition A combination of processor versions, auxiliary data and other needed enablers that allows the generation of a coherent set of EO products Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary,...

  • Processing Levels

    Definition Raw Data The physical telemetry payload data as received from the satellite, i.e. a serial data stream without de-multiplexing. Level 0  Reconstructed unprocessed data at full space-time...

  • Producer

    Definition The role played by those persons or client systems who provide the information to be preserved. This can include other OAISs or internal OAIS persons or systems Source...

  • Product

    Definition Output of an organization that can be produced without any transaction taking place between the organization and the customer The term is used in various Earth observation contexts – and...

  • Product Area

    Definition Suite of products organized by a common thematic category grouped into foundational data, geophysical products and analytical reports. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related...

  • Product Quality Control

    Definition The product quality control function is the determination of parameters of single products describing product quality. This may include automated as well as manual activities,...

  • Product Team

    Definition Scientifically knowledgeable team responsible to ensure that the products are generated, are of high quality and are well documented and delivered to the archive for preservation. Source...

  • Product Type Collection

    Definition The ensemble of all available products of aspecific product type. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Production Request

    Definition Request for production of one or more products,typically related to an order received from a user.Production requests are parameterized withprocessing parameters and parameters...

  • Property+

    Characteristic of a phenomenon that is assessable, attributable, and referenced by a name. Properties can be factual in which case they are also observable, or fictional in which case they need to...

  • Provenance

    Definition The information that documents the history of the content information. This information tells the origin or source of the content information, any changes that may have taken place since...

  • Provenance Information

    Definition The information that documents the history of the content information. This information tells the origin or source of the content information, any changes that may have taken place since...

  • Proximity Computing

    Definition Also referred to as Edge Computing, is the means of computing data physically close to a particular data source, minimizing the need for data to be processed in a remote data center and...

  • Purge

    Definition To permanently and irrecoverably remove all copies of an Earth Observation data set held in an organization. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Quality

    Definition Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics of an object fulfils requirements Source ISO:9000 [RD7] Suggestions Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Quality Assessment

    Definition Term referring to the derivation of quality indicators providing sufficient information to assess whether quality requirements are fulfilled Source CEOS Suggestions Category 4. Data...

  • Quality Assurance

    Definition Part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled Source CEOS/ISO:19159 [RD10], ISO:9000 [RD7] RD10: ISO/TS 19159-1:2014(en),...

  • Quality Control (QC)

    Definition (1) QC refers to the activities undertaken to check and optimise accuracy and precision of the data after its collection (2) part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality...

  • Quality Indicator

    Definition A quality indicator shall provide sufficient information to allow all users to readily evaluate the “fitness for purpose” of the data or derived product. A Quality Indicator may be a...

  • Quality Indicator (QI)

    Definition A means of providing a user of data or derived product with sufficient information to assess its suitability for a particular application. This information should be based on a...

  • Quality Information

    Definition Secondary data required to assess the primary data set’s fitness for purpose, e.g. calibration and validation data and quality control results. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4....

  • Quantity+*

    property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can be expressed as a number and a reference Source: VIM alternative definition: property of a phenomenon,...

  • Quarantine

    Definition Withheld from distribution. An Earth observation product can be quarantined if it has severe technical or quality issues, e.g. blank or corrupted information and thus is not useful to...

  • Radiometric Calibration

    Definition A determination of radiometric instrument performance in the spatial, spectral, and temporal domains in a series of measurements, in which its output is related to the true value of the...

  • Random Error

    Definition (1) component of measurement error that in replicate measurements varies in an unpredictable manner NOTE 1 A reference quantity value for a random measurement error is the average that...

  • Rapid Elasticity

    Definition Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities...

  • Raw Data

    Definition See processing levels. Comments Time ordered telemetry data Extended Application Packets (EAPs) from the Data Handling Node (DHN). The Raw Data set is sent to Satellite Operations (SO)...

  • Readiness Level

    Definition Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Readme

    Definition (for data) A readme file provides information about a data file and is intended to help ensure that the data can be correctly interpreted, by yourself at a later date or by others when...

  • Reconciliation

    Definition A confirmation process, following a re-processing, in which the processed output data, and the relevant input data are matched to detect e.g. any unexplained data losses. If successful,...

  • Record

    Definition See data record. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Reference Model

    Definition A framework for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment, and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that...

  • Reformatting

    Definition A transformation process to convert data holdings from one format into another. During the process certain fields can be relocated from a position al standpoint and/or dropped or the...

  • Refreshment

    Definition A digital migration where the effect is to replacea media instance with a copy that is sufficiently exact so that all archival storage hardware and software continues to run as before....

  • Relative Standard Uncertainty

    Definition Standard measurement uncertainty divided by the absolute value of the measured quantity value Source VIM/ISO:99 [RD18] Suggestions Category 2. Measurement and Metrology words

  • Repackaging

    Definition Repackaging is a digital migration which alters the packaging information of the AIP. Comments Repackaging: a Digital Migration in which there is an alteration in the Packaging...

  • Repeatability

    Definition measurement precision under a set of repeatability conditions of measurement Repeatability conditions: condition of measurement, out of a set of conditions that includes the same...

  • Replication

    Definition A Digital Migration where there is no change to the Packaging Information, the Content Information, and the PDI. The bits used to represent these Information Objects are preserved in the...

  • Repository

    Definition A metadata repository, commonly referred to as a catalog, is accessed by client applications that support user queries.     Source Earth Science Data System Glossary NESDIS Data...

  • Representation Information

    Definition The information that makes digital data legible and useable. It consists of structural, semantic,and other information and includes e.g. descriptions of data formats, file structures,...

  • Representativeness

    Definition The extent to which a set of measurements taken in a given space-time domain reflect the actual conditions in the same or different space-time domain taken on a scale appropriate for a...

  • Reprocessing

    Definition Reprocessing is a specialization of processingwhere a complete product collection issystematically generated to obtain a new revisionusing archived lower level products.Re-processing is...

  • Reproducibility

    Definition Measurement precision under reproducibility conditions of measurement Reproducibility conditions: condition of measurement, out of a set of conditions that includes different locations,...

  • Reprojection

    Definition Changing the coordinates values of a dataset from one coordinate system to another coordinate system. Source GIS NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms Category 4. Data...

  • Request

    Definition A request is the generic means to use a function of an element that provides the function as its service. Requests are usually exchanged between elements such that one element uses the...

  • Resample

    Definition The technique of manipulating a digital image and transforming it into another form. This manipulation could be for various reasons - change of resolution, change of orientation, i.e....

  • Research Product

    Definition A data product produced at a science computing facility by a research algorithm for later migration to a community consensus algorithm and can be archived and distributed by an archive...

  • Resolution

    Definition Radiometric resolution is the amount of information in each pixel, i.e. the number of bits representing the energy recorded. Each bit records an exponent of power 2. For example, an 8...

  • Resource Pooling

    Definition The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned...

  • REST

    Definition A software architectural style that defines a common method for defining APIs for Web services. Source NIST NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship...

  • Restituted (or operational) Orbit

    Definition Restituted (or operational) orbits are produced (e.g. at ESOC) using the same information and processing as with the Predicted Orbits. In this case, the central day of the three days...

  • Restricted Data

    Definition All data concerning (i) design, manufacture, or utilization of atomic weapons; (ii) the production of special nuclear material; or (iii) the use of special nuclear material in the...

  • Retention Period

    Definition The minimum amount of time that a key or other cryptographically related information should be retained. Source NIST NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data...

  • Retrieval

    Definition The physical transfer of data from the repository to the user. Retrieval as well as data search and discovery are part of data access. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data...

  • Satellite Data

    Definition Satellite data are composed of: • Housekeeping telemetry • Payload data transmitted via the payloadtelemetry link. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data Stewardship Glossary NESDIS...

  • Scalability

    Definition Expandable. Referring to hardware or software, the term is a popular buzzword in the IT world. A "highly scalable" device or application implies that it can handle a large increase in...

  • Scene

    Definition Subset of an instrument acquisition data segment, cut by time i.e. across-swath. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary, PGSI-GSEG-EOPG-LI-13-0033 (MM-PDGS Glossary Issue...

  • Schema

    Definition The definition of a data structure such as a database or XML file. Schemas describe the data elements and their interrelationships. Source PC Magazine NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and...

  • Science Data Segment (SDS) Interface

    Definition Provides the capabilities to assess and verify the quality of products identified as Raw Data Records (RDRs), Sensor Data Records (SDRs), Environmental Data Records (EDRs), and...

  • Science Data System

    Definition Oversees the life cycle of science data—from acquisition through processing and distribution. The primary goal of the science data system is to maximize the scientific return from...

  • Science Stewards

    Definition The role of scientific stewards is to provide expert knowledge about the subject that the dataset is associated with, such as temperature or precipitation; to provide scientific...

  • Scientific Data Formats

    Definition Scientific data formats are structured and self-describing to allow N-dimensional data to be represented by a set of software libraries and self-describing, machine-independent data...

  • Search and Discovery

    Definition The action of composing a set of criteria for locating information.  The procedure to search an archive based on specific search criteria (search) and to obtain information on available...

  • Search and Discovery Interface

    Definition Search and Discovery Interface(s) - a web application user interface which allows a customer to enter search terms (location, time, characteristics) with the results being information...

  • Secondary Data

    Definition Any data used for processing or interpreting theprimary data Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Segregation

    Definition Earth observation products can be segregated if their quality is degraded with respect to nominal quality data, e.g. products acquired during manoeuvers, special campaigns, etc., but...

  • Self-Service Access Model

    Definition Self-Service Access Model - a group of data access services which a user can employ to obtain data of interest without any delay as the data are immediately available. Synchronous...

  • Semantic Information

    Definition The Representation Information that further describes the meaning beyond that provided by the Structure Information.   Source Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System...

  • Sensitivity of a Measuring System

    Definition Quotient of the change in an indication of a measuring system and the corresponding change in a value of a quantity being measured. Note: sensitivity can depend on the value of the...

  • Sensor

    Definition Device which transmits an output signal in response to a physical input stimulus as voltage. In Earth observation a distinction between passives sensors, such as radiometers, and active...

  • Sensor Data

    Definition See instrument data Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 3. Observation properties words

  • Sensor Data Record

    Definition See instrument data. Comments The output of a device that detects and responds to some type of input from the physical environment. The output may be used to provide information or input...

  • Sensor Performance Monitoring

    Definition The sensor performance monitoring function is the long-term recording and trend analysis of parameters that describe the quality of sensors and their outputs (level 0 products). Source...

  • Service

    Definition Output of an organization with at least one activity necessarily performed between the organization and the customer A software component participating in a service-oriented architecture...

  • Service Level Agreement

    Definition A service-level agreement (SLA) defines the level of service expected by a customer from a supplier, laying out the metrics by which that service is measured, and the remedies or...

  • Software as a Service (SaaS)

    Definition Software as a Service, i.e. a software program that runs, not on the user’s machine, but on the machines of a hosting company, which the user accesses over the web. The host takes care...

  • Source Data

    Definition Sometimes called raw data, has not been processed for meaningful use to become information.  In the context of computer science and computer applications, is the location where data that...

  • Spatial Reference

    Definition Method by which location or coverage is designated (e.g., latitude and longitude). See Coordinate Reference System Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS-WGISS-DSIG Browse Guidelines...

  • Stability

    Definition Property of a measuring instrument, whereby its metrological properties remain constant in time Source VIM/ISO:99 [RD18] Suggestions

  • Standard Product

    Definition Standard products are agency-certified keyproducts resulting from missions or projects.They are typically acquired systematically and generated by spatially and temporally extensive...

  • Standard Uncertainty

    Definition Measurement uncertainty expressed as a standard deviation Source VIM/ISO:99 [RD18] Suggestions

  • Standardisation

    Definition Establish an agreement (not necessarily obligatory) on precise procedures and concepts Sourced Proposed working definition Suggestions Category 2. Measurement and Metrology words

  • Standing Order

    Definition User-defined systematic request to automatically receive products identified by a set of product metadata; where supported, the user may also supply the processing options to be applied....

  • Standing Order (Subscription)

    Definition Email issued to users when new data is available from the CLASS infrastructure. Comments An email  provides a 'symbolic link' to new files stored in an access area. (Not sure if all...

  • Statistics and Reporting

    Definition The statistics and reporting function provides information about usage, progress, load, qualityof service of the payload data ground segment. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4....

  • Stewardship

    Definition The responsibility for planning, management and certification of digital EO data sets throughout the mission phases and to ensure adequate funding. It includes curation and preservation...

  • Storage

    Definition The permanent holding place for digital data, until purposely erased. Storage is a repository that retains its content without power Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related...

  • Structured Data

    Definition All data has some structure, but ‘structured data’ refers to data where the structural relation between elements is explicit in the way the data is stored on a computer disk. XML and...

  • Structured Error

    Definition Structured errors are a concept introduced to characterise certain errors in satellite imagery. Structured errors arise from effects that influence more than one measured value in the...

  • Submission Agreement

    Definition The agreement reached between an OAIS and theproducer that specifies a data model for the datasubmission session. This data model identifiesformat/contents and the logical constructs...

  • Submission Information Package (SIP)

    Definition An Information Package that is delivered by the Producer to the OAIS for use in the construction or update of one or more AIPs and/or the associated Descriptive Information.  Source...

  • Subscription

    Definition Service allowing the user to receive a provider-defined set of products made available regularly. In the past this set was mastered on media of which each user received copy. Currently...

  • Subscription Monitoring/Administration

    Definition Subscription Monitoring/Administration Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Subscription Service

    Definition A customer subscribes to a service for notifications of data updates.  Comments This service allows users to sign up or subscribe to data update notifications at a particular frequency. ...

  • Subsetting

    Definition The extraction of a multi-dimensional rectangular array of pixels from a single data granule, where consecutive pixels are extracted from each array dimension. For each dimension, the...

  • Swath

    Definition A swath is defined as the area covered by the spatial samples collected during a scan of a spaceborne instrument defined by an incidence angle. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS CEOS EO Data...

  • System

    Definition Set of interrelated or interacting elements Source ISO:9000 [RD7] Suggestions Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Systematic Error

    Definition Component of measurement error that in replicate measurements remains constant or varies in a predictable manner NOTE 1 A reference quantity value for a systematic measurement error is...

  • Tagging

    Definition The process of manually or automatically adding tags or annotation to various components of unstructured data as one step in the process of preparing such data for analysis. Tagging...

  • Technology Stewards

    Definition Individuals who are responsible for establishing, maintaining, and being accountable for the Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Telemetry

    Definition An automated communications process through which payload data collected by the platform are transmitted, to receiving equipment formonitoring, via the telemetry link. Data stream of...

  • Telemetry Data

    Definition Data stream of measured values (instrument science, instrument engineering, and spacecraftor platform engineering data), not including command, tracking, computer memory transfer, audio...

  • Temporal Resolution

    Definition A time period during which data was collected or observations made, or a time period that an activity or collection is linked to intellectually or thematically, for example, 1997 to...

  • Thumbnail

    Definition Small, very low resolution browse image which may be made available for users as part of the catalogue service. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Tiers of Stewardship

    Definition The basic stewardship services, such as the first two levels of tiered data stewardship service defined by NCEI (2014), shown in Figure below, the role of scientific steward becomes...

  • Tools

    Definition In the preservation context understood as a component of the associated knowledge of a data set and includes tools (e.g. software, libraries, scripts, uncompiled code) for product...

  • Traceability

    Definition (1) (metrological traceability) property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing...

  • Traceability Chain

    Definition Sequence of measurement standards and calibrations that is used to relate a measurement result to a reference Source VIM/ISO:99 [RD18] Suggestions Category 2. Measurement and Metrology...

  • Transcription

    Definition Migration of data from one storage medium to another (from old to new technologies) in order to preserve the data and for efficiency purposes. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS...

  • Transformation

    Definition A digital migration in which there is an alteration to the content information or preservation Description information of an archival information package. For example, changing ASCII...

  • Type A evaluation of uncertainty

    Definition Method of evaluation of a component of measurement uncertainty by a statistical analysis of quantity values obtained by measurements under repeatability conditions Source ISO guide 99...

  • Type B evaluation of uncertainty

    Definition Method of evaluation of a component of measurement uncertainty by means other than a statistical analysis of quantity values obtained by measurement Source ISO guide 99 Vocabulary for...

  • Uncertainty

    Definition Non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the quantity values being attributed to a measurand, based on the information used. Where possible, this should be derived from an...

  • Uncertainty of Measurement Method

    Definition Uncertainty associated with the method of measurement, as there can be other methods, some of them as yet unknown or in some way impractical, that would give systematically different...

  • Uniform Resource Identifier

    Definition A uniform resource identifier, or URI, is a short string containing a name or address which refers to an object in the "web."; A compact sequence of characters that identifies an...

  • Uniform Resource Locator

    Definition A uniform resource locator, or URL, is a short string containing an address which refers to an object in the "web." URLs are a subset of URIs.; A reference to a web resource that...

  • Unstructured Data

    Definition Unstructured data is information, in many different forms, that doesn't follow conventional data models, making it difficult to store and manage in a mainstream relational database....

  • User

    Definition External person, in stitution or system that consumes user services (Data Access or Scienceand Service Exploitation Platform) provided by the payload data ground segment. Source...

  • User Category

    Definition Classification of users in order to provide PDGS services with different access rights and service levels Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS ESA PDGS Glossary, PGSI-GSEG-EOPG-LI-13-0033...

  • User Engagement

    Definition An evidence-based discipline that helps us to learn about the needs, challenges, and work environment of those we serve so that we can provide the most useful, usable, and used products...

  • User Guide

    Definition Documentation that is intended to assist users in using a particular product, service or application. Source wikipedia NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms  Category 4. Data...

  • User Management

    Definition The user management function maintains information about registered users and supports registration, authentication and information needed for authorization. Source  CEOS/WGISS/DSIG/GLOS...

  • User Support

    Definition User support is a function inside the payload data ground segment to support external users to interact with the segment, to handle user registration, inquiries, complaints. This...

  • Validation

    Definition The process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. (1) the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the...

  • Value-added Product

    Definition The production of a product in a manner that changes the physical state or form of the product and enhances its value, as demonstrated through a business plan. As a result of the change...

  • Variable

    Definition A parameter or variable is any of a set of physical properties whose values determine the characteristics or behavior of something, for example, parameters of the atmosphere such as...

  • Verification

    Definition (1) provision of objective evidence that a given item fulfils specified requirements; note that, when applicable, measurement uncertainty should be taken into consideration. (2)...

  • Version

    Definition Versioning refers to saving new copies of your files when you make changes so that you can go back and retrieve specific versions of your files later. Comments Best practices is to...

  • Vicarious Calibration

    Definition Post-launch calibration of sensors that make use of natural or artificial sites on the surface of the Earth Source CEOS/ISO:19159 [RD10] RD10: ISO/TS 19159-1:2014(en), Geographic...

  • Virtual Archive Information Package

    Definition A ‘Virtual’ AIP (vAIP) is an NCEI specific realization of the Open Archival Information System Reference Model (OAIS RM) concept of the Archival Information Package (AIP). Comments vAIP...

  • Visualization

    Definition Displaying an image representing a segment or subset of a data granule. Sometimes referred to as a preview service or option. Comments Enables users to better identify and select the...

  • Volume

    Definition A unit of physical storage medium which contains data. Usually physically interchangeable with other volumes of a similar type, and requiring a specific device for reading or writing....

  • Web Object Storage

    Definition Object Storage accessible through HTTPS. Source NESDIS Data Management Lexicon and Related Terms Category 4. Data Stewardship words

  • Workflow

    Definition An orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process...

Menu Display