Methods and Guidelines intro

This section of the Portal provides access to relevant documentation concerning Cal/Val methods, guidelines, good practices and standards


Document Author(s)/year Keyword


Methods, Guidelines and Good Practices

Global Surface Albedo Product Validation Best Practices Protocol. Version 1.0. In Z. Wang, J. Nickeson & M. Román (Eds.), Best Practice for Satellite Derived Land Product Validation (p. 45): Land Product Validation Subgroup (WGCV/CEOS)
doi: 10.5067/DOC/CEOSWGCV/LPV/ALBEDO.001

Wang, Z., Schaaf, C., Lattanzio, A., Carrer, D., Grant, I., Román, M., Camacho, F., Yu, Y., Sánchez-Zapero, J. & Nickeson, J. (2019). Albedo

CEOS Analysis Ready Data for Land (CARD4L )


Adam Lewis , Jennifer Lacey , Susanne Mecklenburg , Jonathon Ross , Andreia Siqueira , Brian Killough , Zoltan Szantoi, Takeo Tadono , Ake Rosenqvist , Philippe Goryl , Nuno Miranda , Steven Hosford (2018)

Analysis Ready Data

A stratified random sampling design in space and time for regional to global scale burned area product validation. Remote Sensing of Environment. 186. 465-478.

Boschetti,L., Stehman, S. V., and Roy, D. P. (2016)

Burned Area

Integrated active fire retrievals and biomass burning emissions using complementary near-coincident ground, airborne and spaceborne sensor data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 719-730

Schroeder, W., Ellicott, E., Ichoku, C., Ellison, L., Dickinson, M.B., Ottmar, R.D., Clements, C., Hall, D., Ambrosia, V., & Kremens, R. (2014).

Burned Area

Digital Elevation Models: Terminology and Definitions. Remote Sensing , 13 (18), 3581


Peter L. Guth, Adriaan Van Niekerk, Carlos H. Grohmann, Jan-Peter Muller, Laurence Hawker, Igor V. Florinsky, Dean Gesch, Hannes I. Reuter, Virginia Herrera-Cruz, Serge Riazanoff, Carlos López-Vázquez, Claudia C. Carabajal, Clément Albinet and Peter Strobl

Digital Elevation Models

The importance of consistent global forest above ground biomass product validation. Surveys in Geophysics

Duncanson, L., Armston, J., Disney, M., Avitabile, V., Barbier, N., Calders, K., Carter, S., Chave, J., Herold, M., Crowther, T.W., Falkowski, M., Kellner, J.R., Labriére, N., Lucas, R., MacBean, N., McRoberts, R.E., Meyer, V., Næsset, E., Nickeson, J.E., Paul, K.I., Phillips, O.L., Réjou- Méchain, M., Román, M., Roxburgh, S., Saatchi, S., Schepaschenko, D., Scipal, K., Siqueira, P.R., Whitehurst, A., Williams, M. 2019.


Aboveground Woody Biomass Product Validation Good Practices Protocol - Version 1.0 2021


Duncanson, L., Armston, J., Disney, M., Avitabile, V., Barbier, N., Calders, K., Carter, S., Chave, J., Herold, M., MacBean, N., McRoberts, R., Minor, D., Paul, K., Réjou-Méchain, M., Roxburgh, S., Williams, M., Albinet, C., Baker, T., Bartholomeus, H., Bastin, J.F., Coomes, D., Crowther, T., Davies, S., de Bruin, S., De Kauwe, M., Domke, G., Dubayah, R., Falkowski, M., Fatoyinbo, L., Goetz, S., Jantz, P., Jonckheere, I., Jucker, T., Kay, H., Kellner, J., Labriere, N., Lucas, R., Mitchard, E., Morsdorf, F., Naesset, E., Park, T., Phillips, O.L., Ploton, P., Puliti, S., Quegan, S., Saatchi, S., Schaaf, C., Schepaschenko, D., Scipal, K., Stovall, A., Thiel, C., Wulder, M.A., Camacho, F., Nickeson, J., Román, M., Margolis, H. (2021). Aboveground Woody Biomass Product Validation Good Practices Protocol. Version 1.0. In L. Duncanson, M. Disney, J. Armston, J. Nickeson, D. Minor, and F. Camacho (Eds.), Good Practices for Satellite Derived Land Product Validation, (p. 236): Land Product Validation Subgroup (WGCV/CEOS), doi:10.5067/doc/ceoswgcv/lpv/agb.001.


Evaluation of fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation products for different canopy radiation transfer regimes: Methodology and results using Joint Research Center products derived from SeaWiFS against ground‐based estimations, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D13110

Nadine Gobron, Bernard Pinty, Ophelie Aussedat, Jing M. Chen, Warren B. Cohen, Rasmus Fensholt, Valery Gond, Karl Fred Huemmrich, Thomas Lavergne, Frederic Me lin, Jeffrey L. Privette, Inge Sandholt, Malcolm Taberner, David P. Turner, Michel M. Verstraete, and Jean-Luc Widlowski . (2006)

Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR)

Global Land Cover Validation: Recommendations for Evaluation and Accuracy Assessment of Global Land Cover Maps. European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability.

Scientific and Technical Research Series: EUR 22156 EN. 48 pp.

Strahler, A.H., Boschetti, L., Foody, G.M., Friedl, M.A., Hansen, M.C., Herold, M., Mayaux, P., Morisette, J.T., Stehman, S.V. and C.E. Woodcock (2014).

Land Cover

Good Practices for Assessing Accuracy and Estimating Area of Land Change.

Remote Sensing of Environment. 148:42-57.

Olofsson, P., Foody, G. M., Herold, M., Stehman, S. V., Woodcock, C. E. and Wulder, M. A. (2014).

Land Cover

Making better use of accuracy data in land change studies: estimating accuracy and area and quantifying uncertainty using stratified estimation. Remote Sensing of Environment, 129:122-131

Olofsson, P., G.M. Foody, S.V. Stehman, and C.E. Woodcock (2013)

Land Cover

Assessing global land cover reference datasets for different user communities. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing

DOI: 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.02.008

Tsendbazar, N. E., S. de Bruin, M. Herold (2014).

Land Cover

Good Practices for Assessing Accuracy and Estimating Area of Land Change - Remote Sensing of Environment, 148:42-57.

Olofsson, P., Foody, G. M., Herold, M., Stehman, S. V., Woodcock, C. E. and Wulder, M. A. (2014).

Land Cover

An overview of global leaf area index (LAI): Methods, products, validation, and applications. Reviews of Geophysics

doi: 10.1029/2018RG000608.

Fang, H., Baret, F., Plummer, S., and Schaepman-Strub, G. (2019)

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

Review of methods for in situ leaf area index (LAI) determination: Part II. Estimation of LAI, errors and sampling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 121, 37-53

Weiss, M., Baret, F., Smith, G.J., Jonckheere, I., & Coppin, P. (2004).

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

Validation of global moderate resolution LAI Products: A framework proposed within the CEOS Land Product Validation subgroup.

IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 44, 1804-1817

Morisette, J.; Baret, F.; Privette, J.L.; Myneni, R.B.; Nickeson, J.; Garrigues, S.; Shabanov, N.; Weiss, M.; Fernandes, R.; Leblanc, S.; et al. (2006)

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

Global Leaf Area Index Product Validation Good Practices. Version 2.0. In G. Schaepman-Strub, M. Román, & J. Nickeson (Eds.), Best Practice for Satellite-Derived Land Product Validation (p. 76): Land Product Validation Subgroup (WGCV/CEOS),


Fernandes, R., Plummer, S., Nightingale, J., Baret, F., Camacho, F., Fang, H., Garrigues, S., Gobron, N., Lang, M., Lacaze, R., LeBlanc, S., Meroni, M., Martinez, B., Nilson, T., Pinty, B., Pisek, J., Sonnentag, O., Verger, A., Welles, J., Weiss, M., & Widlowski, J.L. (2014).

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

An integrated method for validating long-term leaf area index products using global networks of site-based measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment, 209, 134-151.

Xu, B., Li, J., Park, T., Liu, Q., Zeng, Y., Yin, G., Zhao, J., Fan, W., Yang, L., Knyazikhin, Y., & Myneni, R.B. (2018).

Leaf Area Index (LAI)

International Network for Sensor Inter-comparison and Uncertainty assessment for Ocean Color Radiometry (INSITU-OCR). June 8, 2012

INSITU-OCR White Paper

Giuseppe Zibordi ; Sean Bailey; David Antoine; Philippe Goryl; Ewa Kwiatkowska; Menghua Wang; Bryan Franz; Carol Johnson; Hiroshi Murakami; Young Je Park; Prakash Chauhan; Bertrand Fougnie.(2012)

Ocean Color

An inter-comparison exercise of Sentinel-2 radiometric validations assessed by independent expert groups." Remote Sensing of Environment, 233: 111369

Lamquin, N., E. Woolliams, V. Bruniquel, et al. (2019).

Radiometric Validation

Survey Protocol for Geometric SAR Sensor Analysis

DLR-FRM4SAR-TN-200 - Issue 1.4 2018-04-26

Ulrich Balss , Christoph Gisinger , Michael Eineder, Helko Breit, Adrian Schubert , David Small (2018)

SAR Geometric Assessment

Corner Reflector Deployment for SAR Geometric Calibration and Performance Assessment

UZH-FRM4SAR-TN-100 - Issue 1.03 – 22.08.2017

Adrian Schubert , David Small , Christoph Gisinger , Ulrich Balss , Michael Eineder. (2017).

SAR Geometric Assessment

CEOS Reference Solar Irradiance spectrum

CEOS Reference Solar Irradiance Spectrum

Coddington et al (2021)  Solar Irradiance Spectrum

Solar Irradiance Spectrum

Solar Irradiance Spectrum

Margit Haberreiter PMOD/WRC  (2018) Solar Irradiance Spectrum

Validation of SMAP surface soil moisture products with core validation sites. Remote Sensing of Environment 191: 215-231

Colliander, A., T. J. Jackson, R. Bindlish, S. Chan, N. Das, S. B. Kim, M. H. Cosh, R. S. Dunbar, L. Dang, L. Pashaian, J. Asanuma, K. Aida, A. Berg, T. Rowlandson, D. Bosch, T. Caldwell, K. Caylor, D. Goodrich, H. al Jassar, E. Lopez-Baeza, J. Martínez-Fernández, Á. González-Zamora, S. Livingston, H. McNairn, A. Pacheco, M. Moghaddam, C. Montzka, C. Notarnicola, G. Niedrist, T. Pellarin, J. Prueger, J. Pulliainen, K. Rautiainen, J. Ramos, M. Seyfried, P. Starks, Z. Su, Y. Zeng, R. van der Velde, M. Thibeault, W. Dorigo, M. Vreugdenhil, J. P. Walker, X. Wu, A. Monerris, P. E. O'Neill, D. Entekhabi, E. G. Njoku & S. Yueh (2017).

Soil Moisture

A community approach to the standardised validation of surface reflectance data - A technical handbook to support the collection of field reflectance data. Brisbane: CSIRO Centre for Earth Observation

Malthus, Tim; Ong, Cindy; Lau, Ian; Fearns, Peter; Byrne, Guy; Thankappan, Medhavy; Chisholm, Laurie; Suarez Barranco, Lola; Clarke, Kenneth; Scarth, Peter; Phinn, Stuart. (2019).

Surface Reflectance

Land Surface Temperature Product Validation Best Practice Protocol. Version 1.0. In P. Guillevic, F. Göttsche, J. Nickeson & M. Román (Eds.), Best Practice for Satellite-Derived Land Product Validation (p. 58): Land Product Validation Subgroup (WGCV/CEOS)


Guillevic, P., Göttsche, F., Nickeson, J., Hulley, G., Ghent, D., Yu, Y., Trigo, I., Hook, S., Sobrino, J.A., Remedios, J., Román, M. & Camacho, F. (2018).

Surface Temperature

Fiducial Reference Measurements for Validation of Surface Temperature from Satellites (FRM4STS).Technical Report 3 - A Framework to Verify the Field Performance of TIR FRM. Internal Publication, OFE- D120-V1-Iss-3-Ver-1-ISSUED, Issue 3 Revision 0, page 1-75.

Technical Report

Göttsche, F., Olesen, F.S., Høyer, J.L., Wimmer, W., and Nightingale, T. (2017).

Surface Temperature

Laboratory calibration and field measurement of land surface temperature and emissivity using thermal infrared multiband radiometers. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 78, 227-239

doi: 10.1016/j.jag.2019.02.002

Coll, C., Niclòs, R., Puchades, J., Garcia-Santos, V., Galve, J.M., Pérez-Planells, L., Valor, E., and Theocharous, E. (2019).

Surface Temperature


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